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English learning and teaching in iran
Singing Technique in English Teaching:SITET

"                              "      IN THE NAME OF GOD 

 

1." A teacher who is attempting to teach , without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn, is hammering on a cold iron".           Horace Mann

2. " Good Teaching is one- fourth preparation and three-fourths theater."  Gail Godwin

3.  RIDDLE:   

- A man goes into a bar and asks for a glass of water. The barman pulls a gun, and points it at the customer. " thank you" replies the customer and walks out . What happened?

4. A joke

ESL teacher: You must never begin a sentence" I is ……………"

Clever student: Please sir , what's wrong with" I is a vowel".

___By: GH.A.Fadaei_______________________________________________________

The effects of question-generation training on reading comprehension

Teaching students to generate questions- Student – generated questions

                                Questioning strategies

1. Teacher – generated questions

2. Textbook questions

3.Students-generated questions

One of the many jobs of a teacher is to promote thought and inspire inquiry in students. One effective way to do this is through questioning, when teachers prepare thought provoking questions and incorporate them into their lesson plans, they engage students in learning and foster motinvation and higher order thinking skills. When used correctly, questions can" enhance student learning by developing critical thinking skills, reinforce student understanding, correct student misunderstanding, provide feedback for students, and enliven class discussions. (Caram and Davis 2005). In addition to questions created by the teacher, questions from students and textbooks can also be used in the classroom.

El- Koumy, A.(1996) has emphasized the effects of three questioning strategies on EFL Reading Comprehension.

 

Teacher – generated questions:

According to Caram and Davis, there are ten effective strategies for successful questioning by a teacher:

1. Create a classroom culture open to dialogue.

Students should feel comfortable both asking and answering questions in the classroom. Using a non-threatening tone of voice and some positive reinforcement will encourage students to participate in the classroom discussion.

2. Use both preplanned and emerging questions

Preplanned questions allow the teacher to assess students' understanding of a particular topic. Emerging questions can be used for clarifying student misunderstanding or to broaden the students' current knowledge base of a topic.

3. Select and appropriate level of questioning based on the students' needs.

Teachers should begin with questions that require simple regurgitation of factual knowledge and then transition to questions that require critical thinking skills and application. Teachers can use Bloom's Taxonomy to create questions at the appropirate level  for their students.

4. Avoid trick questions that require only a Yes or No answer.

Yes or no answers do not give students the opportunity to think about an issue or create ways to problem solve.

5. Phrase questions carefully, concisely, and clearly.

Questions should not add to a student's confusion about a topic, but rather, help in the clarification process. Carefully phrased questions help teachers accurately assess student's understanding.

6. Address questions to the group or to individuals randomly.

Teachers can address a question to a group of students to and then  give them time to generate and answer before calling on a particular student. Calling on individual students randomly gets everyone involved in the discussion and also keeps students actively involeved in the lesson.

7. Use sufficient wait time.

Waiting for a student response allows students to utilize their problem-solving anslytical skills to generate appropritate answers. It also prevents the teacher from giving away all of the answers while the students remain passive and not engaged.

8. Respond to answers given by students.

Positive reinforcement encourages students and lets them know that they are comprehending the material. If students are not completely comprehending the comcepts, then teachers can ask clarifying or probing questions until full understanding is achieved.

9. Delibrately frame questions to promote student interest.

Students have multiple learning styles. Teachers should be open to unique individual responses and be prepared to multiple answers to the same question.

10. Use questions to identify learning objectives for follow – up self – study.

At the end of a lesson, provide the students with questions related to the lesson that students can explore on their own outside of the classroom.

Evidence of effectiveness

El-Koumy(1996) tested three questioning types: student-generated . teacher- generated and reciprocal questions(formed between teachers and students). El-Koumy found that student' reading comprehension increased when reciprocal questions were asked. This is not to say, however , that how these questions were asked was not important. According to El-Koumy(1996), factors that need to be considered when determining what contributes to the effectiveness of reciprocal questions are: 1. Asking questions that trigger probe thinking. 2. Distributing the questions in terms of student's abilities, 3. Presenting questions to the class before calling upon someone to answer, 4. Accept correct answers sincerely and correcting wrong ones only, 5.displaying the correct answer when the students fail to provide it, giving students the opportunity to raise their own questions, 7.handling student's questions with appropriate consideration on matter how silly they may be,and 8. Asking students to rephrase wrong questions due to poor syntax and/or incorrect logic.

Overall , this study showed that questioning is most effective when students and teachers hold dialogs that contain reciprocal questions.And many researhes have showed that:

Questioning Strategies minimize classroom management problems.

Hyman(1977) investigated patterns in teachers questioning by observing and collecting data in their classroom. Specifically , Hyman was looking at question types that exhibited six different cognitive processes.(defining, interpreting, fact stating, explaining , opining and justifying). The author also looked at student/teacher interactions in the classroom.

When looking at the process of using questions to increase critical thinking skills, Hyman found:

1. students aswered questions well when they had a pletora of data In front of them; that is to say, students could draw many" conclusions, comparisons, and explanations" when provided with an array of facts,  2. Teachers need help with questioning stratgies. Without introduction to new curruculum topics, teacher questions are at a loss. New curriculum warrants new teaching methods and alternate ways of questioning, and  3. Teachers " have a question and answer exchange with one student at a time." Thereby decreasing the chances of a group discussion. Therefore , the results of this study indicate in order for teacher- generated questions to be beneficial, teachers must provide students with all of the facts necessary to answer the questions using critical thinking skills, teachers must be taught how to effectively use questions in the classroom, and questions must engage the entire classroom of students, not just one student at a time.

 

 

 

 

Testbook questions( author made questions)

 

Textbooks usually provide questions at the end of each section or chapter. These questions usually ask students to regurgitate information they have just read. Students normally use these questions to prepare for quizzes and exams as they re-emphasize factual information. Teachers may also assign these questions for homework as a review of a day's lesson.

 

 

                                                                                            Student-generated questions:

STEP 1: Introduce this strategy to the class:

-Locating Explicit Main Idea

- Finding Key Facts

-Writing a "Gist" Sentence

-Generating Questions: Tell students that careful readers often construct questions about what they are reading to help them learn. Put up a list of " signal words" that can be used as question- starters: e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how. Using sample passages, show students how to convert explicit main idea sentences or reader- created " gist" sentences into questions. Point out that these questions can be a good study tool because they are linked to answers that the student has already located in the passage.

Step2:  Give students selected practice passages and instruct them to apply the full question – generation strategy. Provide feedback and encouragement as needed.

As educators, we must teach students how to generate these higher level thinking questions and how to become independent learners.

There are many approaches to using questioning in the classroom. Teachers can provide students with questions before they read a passage, but this is usually results in students solely searching for the answers to these questions in  the text and not comprehending the overall theme or message of the text. Questions asked after students completely read a passage" lead students to process and comprehend more information since they believe all material is equally relevant"(French 1980). This questioning strategy leads students to use their higher order thinking skills.

Singer (1978 , as cited in French 1980) proposed that guiding students to use their order thinking skills is not enough. As educators, we must teach students how to generate these higher level thinking questions and how to become independent learners. Ideally , teachers would model what proper questioning techniques are( or demonstrate question types from various textbooks) , and students would follow this model when generating their own questions. In time , the teacher would decrease the number of predetermined questions they ask and replace them with student derived questions(French 1980)

In studies about student-generated questioning techniques, students were taught to develop questions using who, what, when, where, why , and how as a starting point for questions about general material in a reading. To delve further into higher cognitive levels, students were provided question stems that are represented each of Bloom's cognitive levels.

Overall, " questions improve reading performance because they focus the reader's attention on what is significant in a text and make for a more interactive relationship with a text, resulting in a deeper understanding and appreciation of it"(Miciano 2004). In addition to improving reading performance, teaching students to write high quality questions helps them with assessment questions. In time, students begin to recognize specific question stems, and apply their knowledge of questions types when determining answers on exams and assignments.

 

Pina(2003) conducted an experiment to test whether teacher-generated or student-generated questions facilitated recall of low(factual) and high order(conceptual) factual information. The study used post tests to examine whether or not sixth grade students could retain information. Prior to the post tests, students were given instruction on how to generate both high and low order questions. Students practiced generating questions and then were divided into two writing groups: low order question writers and high order question writers. They were asked to generate 12 questions with answers.

The results of the study indicated that students performed well on the post tests when given questions generated by the teachers. Although the students gained increased cognitive activity when writing questions, the students, did not test well if the questions they wrote were not similar to the assessment questions on the post tests(Pina 2003). The author suggested that in order to have a successful learner-generated questioning strategy, students needed high quality feedback about and time to revise their questions.

 

Student – Generated Test Questions  in practice :  An experience: Silva, Francisco.(1995)

This is a teaching/learning aid that would help students with less effective study habits and the y have a reason to regularly review and think about course content.

Student were asked, but not required, to prepare 2 essay questions following each class. The questions had to be based on material that was covered in the previous class, or from the related text, Also, students had to provide answers for their questions.

At the beginning of each class, I would randomly select a student to present one of their questions and answers. The student would then stand and read the question and answer to the class. I would add any missing information, and we would usually spend a minute or  two discussing the question and answer. I would then call on a second student to present another question and answer. The whole process took about 5 t0 7 minutes.

Students had to present integrative, high- level questions. Students had to prepare 2 questions so they could not say," I had the same questions" if they were not in class when their name was called, they forfeited that opportunity to earn the bonus percent.

How did this affect the students' behavior? It seemed to me that students attended more classes probably because they could potentially earn bonus pints and obtain questions that might appear on an exam. The students' responses on the course evaluation indicated that they were pleased with the course(it received a rating of 3.3). They said that the course was hard work, but in a non-punitive way. Almost all comments about presenting questions and answers were positive.

From my perspective, this simple procedure helped students stay on task and provided them with a more obvious degree of control than the typical" review your notes, study hard, and you'll get a good grade" approach.In essence , that is what they were doing; but asking them to pepare questions and answers provided the means and incentive for doing so that many students lack .

It served as an indicator for my teaching . if the student questions were dismal, I took it as a sign that they were not understanding the material. When their questions were at a higher level, then I assumed they understood the course topics at a higher level. They soon learned it was to their advantage to write higher level questions since those tended to be the ones I would put on the test. The technique benefited student learning and gave me feedback that was useful as well.

 

-------------------------------Good luck  with best wishes for you----------------------------------

Comments to: ghfadaei66@yahoo.com      http://ghfadaei.blogfa.com

 

 

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه بیست و دوم دی 1389ساعت 11:8  توسط ghfadaei | 
 

 

My boss is so unpopular even his own shadow refuses to follow him.


Submitted by Jozef Karpat


"Do you know what really amazes me about you?"
"No.What?"
"Oops.Sorry. I was thinking about someone else!"


Submitted by The Clar (South Korea)
Why do we park our car in the driveway and drive our car on the parkway?
Submitted by Rex Karz in Seattle

 
If tin whistles are made of tin, what are fog horns made of?
Submitted by r.d.

If vegetarians eat vegetables, what do humanitarians eat?
Submitted by Shahirah

Comment Probably too difficult for most ESL students.
A person who speaks two languages is bilingual...A person who speaks three languages is trilingual...A person who speaks four or more languages is multilingual.
What is a person who speaks one language?
An American.
Submitted by H. Terrell

 
A man receives a phone call from his doctor.
The doctor says, "I have some good news and some bad news."
The man says, "OK, give me the good news first."
The doctor says, "The good news is, you have 24 hours to live."
The man replies, "Oh no! If that's the good news, then what's the bad news?"
The doctor says, "The bad news is, I forgot to call you yesterday."

Submitted by Anonymous
Teacher: Tell me a sentence that starts with an "I".
Student: I is the....
Teacher: Stop! Never put 'is' after an "I". Always put 'am' after an "I".
Student: OK. I am the ninth letter of the alphabet.

Submitted by: Monirul Hassan
Two factory workers are talking. The woman says, "I can make the boss give me the day off."
The man replies, "And how would you do that?"
The woman says, "Just wait and see." She then hangs upside-down from the ceiling.
The boss comes in and says, "What are you doing?"
The woman replies, "I'm a light bulb."
The boss then says, "You've been working so much that you've gone crazy. I think you need to take the day off."
The man starts to follow her and the boss says, "Where are you going?"
The man says, "I'm going home, too. I can't work in the dark."
Submitted by: Submitted by: Tshifhiwa Rambau

Two cows are standing in a field.
One says to the other "Are you worried about Mad Cow Disease?"
The other one says "No, It doesn't worry me, I'm a horse!"

+ نوشته شده در  شنبه هجدهم دی 1389ساعت 18:46  توسط ghfadaei | 

Love is ...Being happy for the other person when they are happy,Being sad for the person when

they are sad,Being together in good times,And being together in bad times,

LOVE IS THE SOURCE OF STRENGTH


Love is...Being honest with yourself at all times,Being honest with the other person at all

times,telling,listening,respecting the truth,And never pretending.

LOVE IS THE SOURSE OF REALITY


Love is...An understanding so complete that you feel as if you are a part of the other

person,Accepting the other person just the way they are,And not trying to change them to be

someone else.

LOVE IS THE SOURCE OF UNITY


Love is...The freedom to pursue your own desires while sharing your experiences with the other 


person,The growth of one individual alongside of and together with the growth of another

individual.

LOVE IS THE SOURCE OF SUCCESS


Lvove is...The excitement of planning things together,The excitement of doing things together.


LOVE IS THE SOURCE OF FUTURE


Love is...The fury of the storm,The calm in the rainbow.


LOVE IS THE SOURCE OF PASSION


Love is...Giving and taking in a daily situation,Being patient with each other's needs and desires.


LOVE IS THE SOURCE OF SHARING


Love is...Knowing that the other person will always be with you regarldess of what


happens,Missing the other person when they are away but remaining near in heart at all times.

LOVE IS THE SOURCE OF SECURITY

LOVE IS...THE SOURCE OF LIFE!

"Susan Polis Schutz"

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه بیست و نهم شهریور 1389ساعت 19:12  توسط ghfadaei | 
 

Experience is the best teacher."

Knowledge in youth is wisdom in age"

 ."All are not saints who go to church"

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه بیست و نهم شهریور 1389ساعت 19:3  توسط ghfadaei | 
Felix Frankfurter was born on November 15, 1882
American jurist, 1882-1965
Wisdom too often never comes, and so one ought not to reject it merely because it comes late
More Felix Frankfurter quotes
Felix Frankfurter quotes
1731 William Cowper was born on November 15, 1731
English poet One of the most widely read English poets of his day, 1731-1800
Satan trembles when he sees the weakest saint upon their knees.
More William Cowper quotes
William Cowper quotes
1741 Johann Kaspar Lavater was born on November 15, 1741
Swiss theologian, 1741-1801
Intuition is the clear conception of the whole at once.
More Johann Kaspar Lavater quotes
+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه بیست و نهم شهریور 1389ساعت 18:51  توسط ghfadaei | 

SITET

Singing Technique In English Teaching

This is what is needed. A great technique, a miraculous  Highly important for English teachers in iran . IT IS RALLY MIRACULOUS, WONDERFUL, FANTASTIC.

That is singing presentation of Language materials.

A surrealistic based teaching technique which highly cares for affective factors. The language materials are presented stingingly.This is what we need in English classes. That is great change. It has brought changes.

Aims:

- Helping students memory.

-Internalizing language items.

-Improving pronunciation and good reading.

- Learning and memorizing  irregular forms through singing.

- Creating a relaxed and convivial atmosphere in classroom.

- Removing the irritating cycle which hinders learning by considering affective factors, this paves the way for better learning.

 

The irritating cycle which hinders learning and disturbs learners : threat of learning, stress, anxiety, anger, bordem

SITET claims it can remove those barriers from the way of learners. I have done it a lot in my English classes a lot and I do it now and it has worked . it has been  welcomed warmly by the learners.

Teacher:  An inspirational role, An inspirer

Motto, messages: Don't worry. Be happy. Always say : I Can, I can, I can.

HOW DO I DO IT? (MY PERFORMANCE)

 

 

 

فني برتر در تدريس زبان انگليسي: فن آواز خواني ، ارايه ي مطالب زباني به صورت آوازي و آهنگين

+ نوشته شده در  شنبه بیست و نهم خرداد 1389ساعت 22:1  توسط ghfadaei | 
+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه چهاردهم بهمن 1388ساعت 20:6  توسط ghfadaei | 
 
صفحه نخست
پست الکترونیک
آرشیو
عناوین مطالب وبلاگ
درباره وبلاگ
قربانعلی فدایی متولد 1351 کارشناس ارشد زبانشناسی همگانی و مدرس زبان انگلیسی و دبیر زبان انگلیسی و مبتکر singing technique در تدریس زبان انگلیسی در مدارس ایران هستم. در این وبلاگ برآنم تا تجربیات 20 سال تدریس را با دبیران و مدرسان و دانشجویان ایرانی در میان گذارده و به تلاش برای ارایه ی دستاوردهای علمی در زمینه ی یادگیری و تدریس زبان انگلیسی ادامه خواهم داد. سربلند و جاوید و شاد باشید.

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اوارشک دیار ماندگار ما
 

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