" " IN THE NAME OF GOD
1." A teacher who is attempting to teach , without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn, is hammering on a cold iron". Horace Mann
2. " Good Teaching is one- fourth preparation and three-fourths theater." Gail Godwin
- A man goes into a bar and asks for a glass of water. The barman pulls a gun, and points it at the customer. " thank you" replies the customer and walks out . What happened?
4. A joke
ESL teacher: You must never begin a sentence" I is ……………"
Clever student: Please sir , what's wrong with" I is a vowel".
The effects of question-generation training on reading comprehension
Teaching students to generate questions- Student – generated questions
1. Teacher – generated questions
2. Textbook questions
One of the many jobs of a teacher is to promote thought and inspire inquiry in students. One effective way to do this is through questioning, when teachers prepare thought provoking questions and incorporate them into their lesson plans, they engage students in learning and foster motinvation and higher order thinking skills. When used correctly, questions can" enhance student learning by developing critical thinking skills, reinforce student understanding, correct student misunderstanding, provide feedback for students, and enliven class discussions. (Caram and Davis 2005). In addition to questions created by the teacher, questions from students and textbooks can also be used in the classroom.
El- Koumy, A.(1996) has emphasized the effects of three questioning strategies on EFL Reading Comprehension.
Teacher – generated questions:
According to Caram and Davis, there are ten effective strategies for successful questioning by a teacher:
1. Create a classroom culture open to dialogue.
Students should feel comfortable both asking and answering questions in the classroom. Using a non-threatening tone of voice and some positive reinforcement will encourage students to participate in the classroom discussion.
2. Use both preplanned and emerging questions
Preplanned questions allow the teacher to assess students' understanding of a particular topic. Emerging questions can be used for clarifying student misunderstanding or to broaden the students' current knowledge base of a topic.
3. Select and appropriate level of questioning based on the students' needs.
Teachers should begin with questions that require simple regurgitation of factual knowledge and then transition to questions that require critical thinking skills and application. Teachers can use Bloom's Taxonomy to create questions at the appropirate level for their students.
4. Avoid trick questions that require only a Yes or No answer.
Yes or no answers do not give students the opportunity to think about an issue or create ways to problem solve.
5. Phrase questions carefully, concisely, and clearly.
Questions should not add to a student's confusion about a topic, but rather, help in the clarification process. Carefully phrased questions help teachers accurately assess student's understanding.
6. Address questions to the group or to individuals randomly.
Teachers can address a question to a group of students to and then give them time to generate and answer before calling on a particular student. Calling on individual students randomly gets everyone involved in the discussion and also keeps students actively involeved in the lesson.
7. Use sufficient wait time.
Waiting for a student response allows students to utilize their problem-solving anslytical skills to generate appropritate answers. It also prevents the teacher from giving away all of the answers while the students remain passive and not engaged.
8. Respond to answers given by students.
Positive reinforcement encourages students and lets them know that they are comprehending the material. If students are not completely comprehending the comcepts, then teachers can ask clarifying or probing questions until full understanding is achieved.
9. Delibrately frame questions to promote student interest.
Students have multiple learning styles. Teachers should be open to unique individual responses and be prepared to multiple answers to the same question.
10. Use questions to identify learning objectives for follow – up self – study.
At the end of a lesson, provide the students with questions related to the lesson that students can explore on their own outside of the classroom.
Evidence of effectiveness
El-Koumy(1996) tested three questioning types: student-generated . teacher- generated and reciprocal questions(formed between teachers and students). El-Koumy found that student' reading comprehension increased when reciprocal questions were asked. This is not to say, however , that how these questions were asked was not important. According to El-Koumy(1996), factors that need to be considered when determining what contributes to the effectiveness of reciprocal questions are: 1. Asking questions that trigger probe thinking. 2. Distributing the questions in terms of student's abilities, 3. Presenting questions to the class before calling upon someone to answer, 4. Accept correct answers sincerely and correcting wrong ones only, 5.displaying the correct answer when the students fail to provide it, giving students the opportunity to raise their own questions, 7.handling student's questions with appropriate consideration on matter how silly they may be,and 8. Asking students to rephrase wrong questions due to poor syntax and/or incorrect logic.
Overall , this study showed that questioning is most effective when students and teachers hold dialogs that contain reciprocal questions.And many researhes have showed that:
Questioning Strategies minimize classroom management problems.
Hyman(1977) investigated patterns in teachers questioning by observing and collecting data in their classroom. Specifically , Hyman was looking at question types that exhibited six different cognitive processes.(defining, interpreting, fact stating, explaining , opining and justifying). The author also looked at student/teacher interactions in the classroom.
When looking at the process of using questions to increase critical thinking skills, Hyman found:
1. students aswered questions well when they had a pletora of data In front of them; that is to say, students could draw many" conclusions, comparisons, and explanations" when provided with an array of facts, 2. Teachers need help with questioning stratgies. Without introduction to new curruculum topics, teacher questions are at a loss. New curriculum warrants new teaching methods and alternate ways of questioning, and 3. Teachers " have a question and answer exchange with one student at a time." Thereby decreasing the chances of a group discussion. Therefore , the results of this study indicate in order for teacher- generated questions to be beneficial, teachers must provide students with all of the facts necessary to answer the questions using critical thinking skills, teachers must be taught how to effectively use questions in the classroom, and questions must engage the entire classroom of students, not just one student at a time.
Testbook questions( author made questions)
Textbooks usually provide questions at the end of each section or chapter. These questions usually ask students to regurgitate information they have just read. Students normally use these questions to prepare for quizzes and exams as they re-emphasize factual information. Teachers may also assign these questions for homework as a review of a day's lesson.
STEP 1: Introduce this strategy to the class:
-Locating Explicit Main Idea
- Finding Key Facts
-Writing a "Gist" Sentence
-Generating Questions: Tell students that careful readers often construct questions about what they are reading to help them learn. Put up a list of " signal words" that can be used as question- starters: e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how. Using sample passages, show students how to convert explicit main idea sentences or reader- created " gist" sentences into questions. Point out that these questions can be a good study tool because they are linked to answers that the student has already located in the passage.
Step2: Give students selected practice passages and instruct them to apply the full question – generation strategy. Provide feedback and encouragement as needed.
As educators, we must teach students how to generate these higher level thinking questions and how to become independent learners.
There are many approaches to using questioning in the classroom. Teachers can provide students with questions before they read a passage, but this is usually results in students solely searching for the answers to these questions in the text and not comprehending the overall theme or message of the text. Questions asked after students completely read a passage" lead students to process and comprehend more information since they believe all material is equally relevant"(French 1980). This questioning strategy leads students to use their higher order thinking skills.
Singer (1978 , as cited in French 1980) proposed that guiding students to use their order thinking skills is not enough. As educators, we must teach students how to generate these higher level thinking questions and how to become independent learners. Ideally , teachers would model what proper questioning techniques are( or demonstrate question types from various textbooks) , and students would follow this model when generating their own questions. In time , the teacher would decrease the number of predetermined questions they ask and replace them with student derived questions(French 1980)
In studies about student-generated questioning techniques, students were taught to develop questions using who, what, when, where, why , and how as a starting point for questions about general material in a reading. To delve further into higher cognitive levels, students were provided question stems that are represented each of Bloom's cognitive levels.
Overall, " questions improve reading performance because they focus the reader's attention on what is significant in a text and make for a more interactive relationship with a text, resulting in a deeper understanding and appreciation of it"(Miciano 2004). In addition to improving reading performance, teaching students to write high quality questions helps them with assessment questions. In time, students begin to recognize specific question stems, and apply their knowledge of questions types when determining answers on exams and assignments.
Pina(2003) conducted an experiment to test whether teacher-generated or student-generated questions facilitated recall of low(factual) and high order(conceptual) factual information. The study used post tests to examine whether or not sixth grade students could retain information. Prior to the post tests, students were given instruction on how to generate both high and low order questions. Students practiced generating questions and then were divided into two writing groups: low order question writers and high order question writers. They were asked to generate 12 questions with answers.
The results of the study indicated that students performed well on the post tests when given questions generated by the teachers. Although the students gained increased cognitive activity when writing questions, the students, did not test well if the questions they wrote were not similar to the assessment questions on the post tests(Pina 2003). The author suggested that in order to have a successful learner-generated questioning strategy, students needed high quality feedback about and time to revise their questions.
Student – Generated Test Questions in practice : An experience: Silva, Francisco.(1995)
This is a teaching/learning aid that would help students with less effective study habits and the y have a reason to regularly review and think about course content.
Student were asked, but not required, to prepare 2 essay questions following each class. The questions had to be based on material that was covered in the previous class, or from the related text, Also, students had to provide answers for their questions.
At the beginning of each class, I would randomly select a student to present one of their questions and answers. The student would then stand and read the question and answer to the class. I would add any missing information, and we would usually spend a minute or two discussing the question and answer. I would then call on a second student to present another question and answer. The whole process took about 5 t0 7 minutes.
Students had to present integrative, high- level questions. Students had to prepare 2 questions so they could not say," I had the same questions" if they were not in class when their name was called, they forfeited that opportunity to earn the bonus percent.
How did this affect the students' behavior? It seemed to me that students attended more classes probably because they could potentially earn bonus pints and obtain questions that might appear on an exam. The students' responses on the course evaluation indicated that they were pleased with the course(it received a rating of 3.3). They said that the course was hard work, but in a non-punitive way. Almost all comments about presenting questions and answers were positive.
From my perspective, this simple procedure helped students stay on task and provided them with a more obvious degree of control than the typical" review your notes, study hard, and you'll get a good grade" approach.In essence , that is what they were doing; but asking them to pepare questions and answers provided the means and incentive for doing so that many students lack .
It served as an indicator for my teaching . if the student questions were dismal, I took it as a sign that they were not understanding the material. When their questions were at a higher level, then I assumed they understood the course topics at a higher level. They soon learned it was to their advantage to write higher level questions since those tended to be the ones I would put on the test. The technique benefited student learning and gave me feedback that was useful as well.
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